Birth and development of artificial intelligence: from the Turing test to the present day

La storia dell'Intelligenza Artificiale

Artificial intelligence has spread rapidly across various industrial sectors, but we also use it  daily in everyday life. Yet, it is still a potentially untapped resource in numerous areas and so there is extraordinary room for growth.

Today, artificial intelligence, also known as AI (artificial intelligence), finds wide application in the transport, medical, financial, retail, and automotive sectors and has spawned virtual assistants on mobile devices, such as Alexa and Siri. If you want to know which are the most suitable artificial intelligence tools for your company, contact us at Humable. With our support, you can make the most of the potential of your business, optimizing processes and achieving significant savings in time and money.

The evolution of AI: origins to modern times

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AI has its roots in the 1950s, a period of great turmoil from a scientific point of view. The origin of artificial intelligence can be considered the 1956 conference at Darmouth College, New Hampshire, where the leading luminaries of computer science gathered. The goal was to create a machine capable of perfectly imitating and simulating human learning and behavior. In that context, the term “artificial intelligence” was first coined.

Among the founding fathers of modern computer science is Alan Turing, who, as far back as 1936, had laid the foundations for the concept of computability. He was the creator of the so-called Turing test, according to which a machine could be considered intelligent if its behavior was identical in all respects to that of a person, indistinguishable in the eyes of a human being.

The first stage in the evolution of AI was LISP in 1958, a scientific programming language for solving artificial intelligence problems. ELIZA was later developed in 1965, a program capable of simulating the interaction between a patient and a psychotherapist. In 1976, MYCIN, a system capable of diagnosing blood diseases, came to light.

In the 1980s, artificial intelligence made its arrival in the industrial world with R1, a system able to configure orders for new computers. From then to the present day, more and more modern and cutting-edge technologies have been developed, becoming a permanent part of our daily life. Just think of Siri, Alexa, Ok Google and all the other virtual assistants able to provide useful information in everyday choices: from the music we listen to, to the clothes we wear, to the most suitable roads to take to avoid traffic.

Strong and weak artificial intelligence: the differences

Expectations of artificial intelligence grew, but the times were evidently not yet ripe. At the turn of the 1950s and 1960s, machines, unlike what had been predicted, were not yet able to perform and learn human behavior to perfection. The result was a fragmentation of artificial intelligence into what can be classified as “strong” and “weak”.

According to the theory of strong artificial intelligence, machines are able to develop an autonomous consciousness, capable of perfectly replicating human intelligence. However, much of the scientific community believes that human intelligence is too complex to be imitated in this manner.

The theory of weak artificial intelligence, on the other hand, maintains that machines are able to solve rather complicated problems, without, however, having a consciousness comparable to that of humans. For example, a weak AI machine, while not having the same cognitive abilities as a human being, can still sustain and maybe even win a game of chess through elaborate algorithms.

Technologies available to companies

AI has given rise to a series of technologies that companies can use according to their specific needs.

One of the concepts closely related to artificial intelligence is so-called machine learning, capable of designing, developing and training models of applications and other machines. machine learning platforms are extremely useful when you need to process a large amount of data. A deeper facet of machine learning is deep learning, an algorithm able to recognize objects within images, convert spoken text into written text, or process language and translate it into the most appropriate format.

Another invaluable tool for business processes is RPA (Robotic Process Automation), which involves the use of software to automate repetitive tasks to save time and money. Human resources can be reallocated according to their specific skills, to the benefit of a company’s productivity.

A branch of AI that plays an increasingly important role is natural language processing, able to analyze data and extract keywords, concepts, categories and all the main contents by perfectly understanding natural language. Examples are virtual assistants, automatic translators and chatbots, capable of fully replacing a human operator and of having a chat conversation without problems.

Do you want to enter the exciting world of artificial intelligence? Contact us at Humable, so that we can be by your side as you launch your business into orbit.

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